The pungent scent of fresh pepper has lure spice fiends to Kochi from as far away as King Solomon’s Israel, ancient Rome, Kublai Khan’s pleasure dome, and colony-hungry Portugal, Holland, and England. Kochi’s magnificent eclecticism is legendary: Chinese fishing nets line the harbor’s mouth, Dutch-style houses cram narrow streets, and sacks of spices fill the air with the same evocative smells that drew merchants and explorers. Across the water from Fort Cochin, Ernakulam plays the part of modern alter-ego; it’s frantic, brash, and polluted streets contrast with the archaic, vaguely European quality of Kochi.
Foreign visitors have flocked to Kochi for thousands of years. St. Thomas the Apostle stopped by in AD 54, and Jews fleeing Jerusalem landed nearby in AD 70. Chinese and Arab traders were making regular visits at least 2000 years ago. In 1341, torrential floods from the Western Ghats hollowed out Lake Vembanad, giving Kochi a perfect harbor – the “Queen of the Arabian Sea.” Vasco da Gama arrived in the late 15th century, launching an international scramble for the lucrative Malabar spice trade. The Portuguese were followed by the Dutch and then the British, who briefly ruled the Chennai Presidency from there.
Wider Kochi consists of a bunch of islands around Lake Vembanad and the mainland city of Ernakulam, Fort Cochin, and Mattancherry occupy a peninsula that juts into the Arabian Sea; nearby islands include Vypeen Island and the smaller islands of Willingdon, Vallaradam, Gundy, and Bolghatty. The central railway, bus stations, and many of the hotels are in Ernakulam, but tourists generally devote their waking hours to Fort Cochin and the peninsula with its many attractions.
Ernakulam’s three main streets, Shanmugham, Mahatma Ganghi (MG), and Chittoor Rd., run north-south: Convent Rd. intersects at Shenoys Junction, a couple of blocks west of the central bus station; three blocks south of Shenoys Junction, Hospital Rd. runs to the lake-front; farther south, Jos Junction marks the Rd. (the western extension of Convent Rd.) and Hospital Rd.
The north-south Princess St. is Fort Cochin’s main drag. It begins at Calvathy Rd. (called River Rd. in the west and Bazaar Rd. in the east), which curves along the shoreline. Jew Town, Mattancherry, and the Dutch Palace, are south of Fort Cochin, on the eastern side of the peninsula. In the early 20th century, a mammoth dredging project created Willingdon Island, sandwiched between Ernakulam and the peninsula. Willingdon is home to the Cochin Harbour Railway Station. With a 270° view of the harbor, the Taj Malabar Hotel is at the northern tip of the island.
As the heavy orange sun sinks down into the Arabian Sea, fishermen haul up Chinese Fishing nets while ancient church bells toll; all the romantic fantasies of old come true in Fort Cochin. A 45min. stroll from Fort Cochin brings you to the heart of Mattancherry, one of the historic centers of the international spice trade. Follow Calvathy Rd. to the Customs Jetty and keep going as it turns into Bazaar Rd. – it’s a pleasant walk past rows of export warehouses, where rich smells of tea, pepper, and spices waft out from every alley. If you want to add exhaust fumes to this olfactory kaleidoscope, you can also take an auto-rickshaw from Fort Cochin.
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Fort Cochin has few restaurants, but there are shacks on the sea-front that grill fish to order and serve the usual fried snacks. The restaurants here tend to be expensive and prefer to serve Western, rather than Indian food. Bakeries and vegetable stores cluster at the intersection of Bastian St. and Mohammed (one block east and parallel to KB Jacob), and fruit is sold near the bus stand. There are also some bakeries along Fosse and Pullupalam Rd., the eastern extensions of Bastian Rd.
Ernakulam’s eateries serve both international foodstuffs and Indian food (so rare in Fort Cochin). Try local foods like appam (a thick dosa served with fish stew), and dishes prepared with coconut. Excellent bakeries and tempting juice bars (no water, no ice) line the streets.
Once upon a time, protracted Vedic prose prescribed every dash and pinch of every spice and herb, and every plate was placed to provide the therapeutic and medicinal benefits of sustenance in just the right place way. Today, the main worry for many travelers is avoiding overexposure to the intense flavors of the subcontinent’s famously uncompromising cuisine. Most people in India begin the day with a small breakfast, eat lunch between noon and 2pm, enjoy sweet tea and salty snacks in the late afternoon, and eat dinner between 7 and 10pm.
Meals in India begin with the staple: usually whole wheat bread in the north, rice in the south and east. Since most Indians eat with their hands, the bread and rice replace cutlery and is used to scoop food from the plate into the mouth. In a typical Northern Indian meal, the bread is accompanied by one or two spicy vegetable dishes, a lentil soup called dal, and sometimes by rice and curd. Though flat when served, the chappati fills with hot air when cooked over an open fire – the more it swells, the hungrier the person waiting for it is supposed to be. Elaborate variations on the theme include: paratha, a two-layered bread, sometimes stuffed with vegetables such as onions, radishes, and potatoes, and usually eaten with curds at breakfast; naan, a thicker, chewier kind of bread made with white flour and baked in a tandoor, or clay oven; and puri, a fried version of the standard chappati that is generally eaten with potatoes for breakfast or lunch. Common North Indian rice dishes such as biryani or pulao come mixed with vegetables and occasionally meat. Most non-vegetarian options involve chicken or lamb, since beef is off-limits to Hindus and pork is unclean for Muslims.
Condiments like achar (pickles) and papadum, a thin, crunchy wafer that is roasted or fried serve to spice up an already spicy meal. Popular snacks include samosa, a spicy, fried potato turnover served with tamarind and mint sauces, and bhel puri, a sweet and sour mixture of fresh sprouts, potatoes, and yogurt. Desserts are often made of boiled milk, fried, and are drowned in heavy cream or whole milk flavored with pounds of sugar. For a lightweight alternative, try paan, the after-dinner chew that is the cause of the crimson-colored spatterings that stain every street you walk down. A paan leaf can be filled with everything from coconut to sweetened rose petals to flavored betel nut and tobacco.
Unfortunately, those afraid of illness often avoid many of India’s delicious drinks because they contain ice cubes of untreated water. Lassi, made with yogurt and sugar, salt, or fruit, and the widely sold sugarcane juice are good for cooling off. Besides the famous chai (tea), coffee is also popular, especially in South India.
Drinking alcohol is an acceptable practice in some parts of the country, but it is frowned upon in other regions and may be hard to find. Popular brands of beer include Taj Mahal and Kingfisher. Be careful when ordering difficult or obscure mixed drinks – what gets called Kahlua could taste a bit like fermented Ovaltine, and is probably an example of Indian-Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL). Imported brands are available in big cities, and not-so-good domestic wines are available at expensive restaurants.
Kathakali, which means “story play,” is one of India’s four major schools of classical dance. Transformed into gods and demons with wildly colored make-up, massive golden headdresses, and skirts bright and full enough to put any ballerina to shame, the performers blink, bound, and flap expressively to tell their tale. Usually male, the actors study scripture, Klaripayatu, ayurvedic massage, and music for eight years, beginning at age 10 or 12. They then train in dance for four years. Emphasis is given to proper lifestyle and the deep understanding of archetypes portrayed in the Vedas. The dancers communicate ideas and feelings through 24 mudras, hand gestures combined with convulsive eye and face movements and the pounding of ghungroo-laden feet. By using combinations of these mudras – signifying things like “love,” “sarcasm,” “bee drinking from a lotus flower,” etc. – the dancers depict stories from the Ramayana and Mahabharata while piercing drums and classical vocals provide narration. Although traditional kathakali was – and still is on special holy days – performed as part of a temple ritual, modern-day shows last only an hour or so and are performed for tourists who come to “watch the Gods dance.”
Kochi offers spectacular nightly performances of Kathakali dance, Kerala’s startling and gorgeous brand of traditional music and movement. Frequently geared toward tourists, these performances are usually prefaced by elaborate make-up demonstrations, an explanation of the music and hand-symbols, and a synopsis of the tale to be enacted. Performances last from one hour to 90min., or, in true authenticity, a whopping eight hours.
The typical Hindu temple is the result of thousands of years of evolution. Temples originally consisted of little more than a small, dark, square sanctum referred to as the garbhagriha (“womb chamber”), which housed the deity. A tall pyramid-shaped spire, or shikhara, was later added to symbolize the connection between heaven and earth. As temple architecture grew more elaborate, distinctive Northern Indian and Southern Indian styles began to emerge. In a typical northern temple, a series of four rooms leads to the sanctum. Each room has its own shikhara, though these rarely rise above the shikhara of the central chamber. This row of spires resembles a mountain range and perhaps symbolizes the Himalayan peaks where the gods may live. Many of the greatest North Indian temples were destroyed by Islamic iconoclastic campaigns from the 12th century onward, but excellent examples remain in Orissa and in Khajuraho. In South India, the sanctum was expanded, and surrounded by four rectangular entrances towers, or gopurams, which had shikharas of their own, topped by barrel-vaults. These gopurams eventually grew to dwarf the central shikars, creating grand temple-city complexes such as those of Madurai and Srirangam in Tamil Nadu.
The conquest of India by Muslim forces in the 12th century brought the Islamic styles of Persia and Central Asia to India. Since Islam forbids the depiction of human and animal images, Muslim artists concentrated instead on pure mosque -building, dotting the landscape with gorgeous domes, arches, geometric patterns, and calligraphic inscriptions. The biggest and brightest of these Muslim jewels are the Qutb Minar complex in Mughal stronghold Delhi, the pink and red post-and-lintel buildings of the city of fatehpur Sikri, and a little marble ditty in Agra called the Taj Mahal.
The people of the Indus Civilization left behind them simple terra-cotta figurines and seals decorated with pictures of animals and marked with a script that has still not been deciphered. Little else remains of Indian sculpture prior to the 3rd century BC, when the Mauryan emperor Ashoka set up stone columns all over India as a symbol of his rule. These columns were often topped with elaborate animal sculptures like those found at the Lion Capital in Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh. With four fierce lions sitting back-to-back on a lotus platform, this sculpture has become one of India’s national emblems, and appears on all national currency.
The next two centuries saw the development of two-dimensional bas-relief sculpture, which was often used to decorate the railings of stupas and which usually told stories from the life of the Buddha or myths about gods and goddesses. The beginnings of classical Indian sculpture can be traced to the 1st century AD, when artists in Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) began to carve three-dimensional images of the Buddha. Influenced by Greek sculpture, Gandharan artists produced ornate images of the Buddha, emphasizing intricate folds of clothing and other details.
During the Gupta period (4th-6th centuries AD), sculpture in Mathura reached its peak. Spreading throughout North India, sculptors applied principles borrowed from Buddhist imagery to depictions of Hindu gods. Distinct regional styles developed from the mathura style, contributing to the architectural wonders at Sarnath and in the cave temples of Ajanta in Maharashtra.
In North India, the sensuous and voluminous figures of the Mathura style of sculpture gave way to more elegant, rhythmic forms. This style climaxed in the 10th century, when it was used to adorn the exteriors of North Indian temples. A distinctively South Indian style produced the 7th century bas-reliefs of Mahabalipuram, and the miniature sculpture in South India peaked during the 9th and 10th centuries producing images like that of Shiva as Nataraja (Dance King) surrounded by a ring of fire. This image is common throughout Tamil Nadu, but the one at the Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur is the most famous. Regional traditions developed in other areas, such as Maharashtra, where sculptors created large, stocky figures; the Kailasa Temple in Ellora is a good example.
The history of painting in India reached far back to the nation’s ancient history, when palm leaves served as the first canvases. The only ancient paintings that have survived are those there were sheltered by rock, like the wall paintings at Ajanta in Maharashtra, dating from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. The style of Indian painting best known today began in western India during the medieval period. Colorful, cluttered scenes with figures shown in profile were made to illustrate Jain manuscripts. This style gradually spread throughout the country, and wide variety of religious paintings.
The Delhi sultans and Mughal emperors who began to arrive in India after the 12th century brought with them a taste for Persian art and radically altered the course of Indian painting. Emperor Akbar, a great patron of the arts, played a decisive part in the development of the Mughal School of painting. He supervised his painters closely as they produced beautiful miniature illustrations for written histories, myths, and fables. Among other works, his court artists illuminated a magnificent Persian edition of the Mahabharata, now kept in the City Palace in Jaipur. As the Mughals settled in India, some Muslim artists began to disregard the Islamic injunction against the representation of human forms, and during the reign of Jehangir, artistic emphasis shifted to portraiture.
The delicate, detailed Mughal style influenced Hindu painting as well. Under the patronage of Hindu Rajput kings in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Rajasthani School emerged, combining the abstract forms of the western Indian styles with some of the naturalism of Mughal art. Rajput paintings usually depicted religious subjects, especially myths about Krishna cavorting with his gopis (milkmaid consorts) or pining for Radhas, his favorite.
The Mughal and Rajasthani styles had fallen into decline by the 18th and 19th centuries, when European art became influential. The first Indian attempts to copy European styles, known collectively as the Company School, were mostly lifeless engravings and watercolors. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, artists of the Calcutta-based Bengal School, led by Rabindranath Tagore, combined older Indian styles with modern Western art. Twentieth century artists like Jamini Roy and M.F. Hussain combined eastern and western influences.
India’s obsession with the movies began in 1912, when Dadasaheb Phalke produced the first Indian feature film, Raja Harishchandra. Jokingly referred to as “Bollywood,” the Indian film industry, based in Mumbai (Bombay) is by far the most prolific in the world today, producing more than 800 films a year and attracting annual audiences of more than a billion people worldwide. Hindi and Tamil are the most important languages, and Chennai (Madras) in Tamil Nadu is home to its own booming movie industry and its own galaxy of stars (many of whom go on to play star roles in local politics after their retirement from the big screen). The appearance of the first talkie (Alam Ara) in 1931 split the movie-going audience along linguistic lines, but it wasn’t long before directors hit on a solution, by incorporating into their films a language that nearly everyone could understand and enjoy – music. A tradition was born. Since then, some films have managed to squeeze in nearly 70 songs; not many can manage quite that number, but you would have to search long and hard today before you found a movie without at least one song-and-dance sequence in it somewhere. By the 1940s, the introduction of pre-recorded songs and playback singing meant that actors no longer had to be singers. The most successful playback singer, Lata Mangeshkar, holds the world record for most songs ever recorded, having put out more than 25,000 songs during her career. Today, a film’s soundtrack is almost as important for its chances of success as its plot or its big-name stars. Chances are that almost all the music you hear as you travel around India will come from one of the latest blockbuster smashes; don’t be surprised if you find yourself humming along by the end of your trip.
During the 1930s and 1940s, the social film served as a useful way of addressing the concerns of contemporary life. It also introduced the preference for loudness – gaudy costumes, flighty and capricious music, exciting choreography, and wink-wink, nudge-nudge sex – that continues to be the hallmark of Indian film to this day. The masterpieces of serious film-makers like Satyajit Ray (Pather Panchali, 1955) have long been acclaimed by critics around the world as some of the finest films ever made. More popular films have had to wait longer for international acceptance, but in 2002 Ashutosh Gowariker’s Rajera epic Lagaan was the first Indian film ever to win an Oscar nomination (for Best Foreign Film; it didn’t win), and in June 2002 a major exhibit at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London brought Bollywood and its colorful history to a whole new audience. Indian pictures such as Mira Nair’s Monsoon Wedding have been shown to huge audiences around the globe. Perhaps the world is learning to dance to the Bollywood Beat at last.
The art of making music is not just entertainment in India; it is a spiritual undertaking. A piece of classical Indian music is based on a raga and a tala, which form the melodic and rhythmical framework for the piece of music respectively. Derived from a Sanskrit word meaning “to color,” the raga is the foundation of all composition and improvisation. In the Hindu tradition, each raga is associated with a different moment of the day or season of the year. Ragas differ from one another in scale and in rasa (mood). Unlike Western music with its fixed-pitch scales, the Indian musician is free to place the tonic note wherever he wishes. Once the musician has established the tone for this raga, he improvises within the constraints of the chosen raga, exploring its potential to be created anew with each performance. Opportunities for improvisation likewise exist between the fixed beats of the tala and its repeated rhythmic cycle. The raga and the tala interact, with intonation and inflection converging at regularly emphasized intervals.
Modern Indian classical music, often divided into northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic systems, has its origins in ancient chants. Musical form is first discussed in the Bharata Natyashastra, a textual source of music written between 2BC and AD 4 by the sage Bharat. North Indian music was particularly influenced by the styles of Persia and Turkey, where court patronage of musicians from the Middle East encouraged the development of an elaborate and highly evolved musical culture. The song style of qawwali, popular during weddings, is a musical debate: singers from two groups, one boasting the accomplishments of the bridge, the other singing the praises of the groom. In its romantic form, qawwali is a socially acceptable form of flirting, while the lilting ghazals are similar to a ballad.
Many Indian musicians have gained worldwide followings. Ravi Shankar, who introduced Hindustani music to western ears during the 1960s and attracted the attention of the Beatles, is a master of the sitar, a fretted, 20-stringed instrument with a long teak neck fixed to a seasoned gourd. Ali Akbar Khan has also amazed international audiences with the strains of the sarod, a fretless stringed instrument similar to a sitar. Allah Rakha and his son, Zakir Hussain, mesmerize audiences with their virtuosity on the tabla, two drums played together and capable of producing an incredible range of tones, and musicians like “Mandolin” U. Srinivasan and the legendary singer M.S. Subbulakshmi have ensured Carnatic music’s place in Indian music history.
Folk music is linked closely to folk dance and varies from region to region. From punjabi bhangra to Rajasthani langa, folk tunes remain close to the hearts of Indians, and have recently gained an even larger audience through the international releases of Ila Arun and bhangra-rap performers in the UK. Bengali musicians have produced their own unique rengre, Rabindrasangit, in which the poetic words of Rabindranath Tagore are set to quasi-classical song.
Popular music ranges from the “filmi” love songs of Lata Mangeshkar to the disco-hybrid-pop of vocal diva, Alisha, whose album Made in India sold over one million copies in 1995. Popular vocalists include the playful and prolific Kishore Kumar, whose versatile voices has filled in the melodic blanks for more actors than anybody can remember, and Punjabi crooner Daler Mehndi, whose 1996 hit, “Bolo Ta Ra Ra,” brought bhangra out of the North Indian countryside and onto satellite television, launching Indipop’s international career.
The Hindu god Nataraja, King of the Dance, has made his influence felt in every sphere of Indian life. Indian dance forms, both classical and folk styles, evolved as acts of worship that dramatized myths and legends. Technique and philosophy, passed down from gurus to students, have carried the “visual poetry” described in the Natya Shastra (dating from between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD), into modern times. Bharatnatyam, India’s most ancient dance form, originated in the temples of Tamil Nadu where dancers performed intricate, fluid combinations of eye movements, facial expressions, hand gestures, and strong, rhythmic, ghungroo-enhanced steps. It was originally studied as a form of worship, and performed by devadasis, women who lived in temples and devoted their lives to the opulent backdrop of North India’s Mughal courts, is remarkable for the dizzying speed of its characteristic footwork and hand gestures. Developed from a rigorous system of yoga, Kathakali, an elaborately costumed form of dance-drama unique to Kerala, presents mythological stories of heroes, lovers, gods, and battles. The dancers, all male, must study for a minimum of 15 years before they are considered ready to come out and strut their stuff.
Cricket isn’t just a game in India – it’s a national obsession. Indians turn out in their thousands to watch the big games, and an informal game or two seems to be constantly underway on every street corner in the country, often played by young boys using sticks for bats and bricks for wickets. Expect to be asked for the names of your favorite players at every turn, and be ready to give an opinion on the state of the national game if you don’t want to be taken for an idiot. Like many other former colonies, India regularly beats England at its own game these days. One of the few occasions when India is able to forget its internal conflicts and come together as one nation comes whenever the Indian cricket team plays against archrival, Pakistan. Test matches are watched by millions of people across India – huge crowds gather wherever there’s a game being shown on TV. Things occasionally turn nasty; the Indian team reached the semi-finals of the 1996 World Cup, only to be disqualified when fans began to throw bottles, rocks, and other missiles onto the pitch. The gentleman’s game had its reputation dragged through the dirt as the new millennium began, when allegations of dodgy dealings with shady betting syndicates brought many of India’s national heroes out of the dressing room and into champion Australia in Spring 2001, and followed up with victories in Zimbabwe and against England at home before setting off to the West Indies in April 2002.
India is also a consistent Olympic medal-winner at hockey. Soccer and horse racing are especially popular in the east and in urban areas. Kabbadi, a breathless game of tag, is popular throughout the north.
Dress modestly and respectably. Only young boys wear shorts in public. Women should keep their legs covered, at least to the knee. Bare shoulders are another sign of immorality (not to mention a surefire way to get sunburned). How you dress affects the way people respond to you. In India, women will often be treated with more respect if they wear a salwar kameez. Men’s clothing is typically more “internationalized,” but men may still want to buy a thin cotton kurta pajama. Try to look clean and presentable. In the eyes of many Indians, foreign tourists are an affluent and privileged group, and many Indians find it hard to understand why so many Westerners choose to dress like the poorest of India’s poor, who would surely dress differently if they could.
A quick tilt of the head, a sort of wobbly sideways nod, means “OK,” or “I understand.” Many foreigners are baffled by this gesture, thinking their hosts are answering their most innocent comments and requests with a firm “no.” Indian English, especially when written, is full of antique civilities. You will often hear people address you are “madame” or “good gentleman,” and read letters asking you to “kindly do the needful” and signed “your most humble servant.”
Many foreigners have trouble adjusting to the constant stares they receive in India. There is no taboo against staring in South Asia and no harm is intended, but be sure not to send mixed signals. Meetings someone’s gaze is often tantamount to expressing a desire for further contact. Meeting new people and talking to them about their way of life is one of the things that make travel worthwhile, but it can get hard sometimes both acceptable and appropriate to ignore attempts at conversation. And the more you know about cricket, the happier you’ll be.
Most Indians eat with their hands, though many restaurants give cutlery to foreigners. The most important thing is to eat with your right hand only. The left hand is used for cleaning after defecation and is seen as polluted. You can use your left hand to hold a fork or to pass a dish, but it should never touch food or your lips directly. Any food or drink that comes into contact with one person’s saliva is unclean for anyone else. Indians and Nepalis will not usually take bites of each other’s food or drink from the same cup; watch how locals drinks from water bottles, pouring the drink in without touching their lips. In Hindu houses, the family hearth is sacred. If food is cooked before you on a fire (as it frequently is in trekking lodges) never play with the fire or throw trash in it.
Almost all Jains and many Hindus (especially in South India) are vegetarians, and even for many non-vegetarians, beef is scarce. Muslims do not eat pork and are supposed to shun alcohol. It is considered offensive for women to drink alcohol in public.
All bodily secretions and products are considered polluted. The people who come into contact with them – laundrymen, barbers, latrine cleaners – have historically formed the lowest ranks of the caste system. The head is the most sacred part of the body, and purity decreases all the way down to the toes. To touch something with your feet is a grave insult; you should never touch a person with your foot. Never put your feet on a table or any other surface. Conversely, to touch somebody else’s feet is an act of veneration. If you accidentally touch someone else with your foot, touch your eyes and then their knee or foot, whichever is more accessible. The left hand is polluted. Always use your right hand to eat, give, take, or touch.
Displays of physical affection between women and men are rare. Same-sex affection, on the other hand, is considered completely natural and acceptable, and you often see men walking down the street clasping hands. Most Indian and Nepali women are meek and quiet in public, and it is considered inappropriate for strange men to talk to them. Women travelers might find it hard to meet Indian and Nepali women, though women should always try to find other women to assist in an emergencies.
Be especially sensitive about etiquette in places of worship. Dress conservatively, keeping legs and shoulders covered, and take off your shoes before entering any mosque, gurudwara, or temple. Visitors to Sikh gurudwaras and women entering Muslim mosques should cover their heads as well – handkerchiefs may be provided. At the entrance to popular temples, shoe-wallahs will guard your shoes for a few coins. Ask before taking photographs in places of worship. Taking pictures of the deities in Hindu temples is normally not allowed. Many Hindu temples ban non-Hindus from entering. In practice this rule excludes anyone who doesn’t look sufficiently South Asian. Purity laws dictate that menstruating women are forbidden to enter some Hindu and Jain temples.
It is common practice in Hindu temples to partake in offerings of consecrated fruit and water called prasad, which is received with the right hand over the left (and no one takes seconds). It is customary to leave a small donation at the entrance to the temple sanctuary. This can cause dilemmas when temple priests aggressively force prasad into our hands, expecting large amounts of cash in return. Usually a donation of one or two rupees will suffice. Hinduism and Buddhism consider the right-hand side auspicious and the left-hand side inauspicious; it is customary to walk around Hindu temples and Buddhist stupas clockwise, with your right side toward the shrine.